Mastering Gut Health: How Diet Influences Your Microbiome
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Mastering Gut Health: How Diet Influences Your Microbiome

Published on Monday, February 12, 2024
by
Lindsey Lemus

Health & Wellness

Nourishing Your Microbiome for Overall Health and Well-being

Did you know your digestive system contains trillions of microbes critical for keeping your body healthy? This multitude of tiny organisms (mainly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, and other microscopic creatures) makes up your gut microbiome, primarily living in your small and large intestines (otherwise known as the gut!). Health and nutrition experts consider this system of microorganisms to have an essential purpose.

Fiber and Prebiotics: Fueling Your Gut Bacteria:

How do bacteria use the food we eat? Fiber and prebiotics are the primary food sources for bacteria. So, how important is gut bacteria, and what does that have to do with the food we eat? Well, the bacteria in our gut are directly nourished by our food. When food is consumed, bacteria in our gut microbiome can break down certain nutrients from our food that our body cannot digest (such as fiber) and use them to grow.

Fiber, otherwise known as prebiotics, is the main food source for bacteria in our gut microbiome. While our bodies cannot break down certain types of fiber, the bacteria in our digestive tract can use fiber as food, allowing that bacterial population to grow. 

Short-Chain Fatty Acids: The Wonders of Nutrient Breakdown:

Bacteria also use fiber from our food to produce compounds that benefit the body. These compounds, called short-chain fatty acids, are well-researched and have been shown to help the digestive tract by improving gut function as well as other bodily systems through improving hormone balance, breakdown of fats, hunger and fullness cues, inflammation, and even insulin sensitivity.

When you are well-nourished through a balanced diet and practicing healthy, mindful habits, your gut microbiome is an optimal environment for producing these short-chain fatty acids and providing your body with balance and regulation.

Prebiotics vs. Probiotics: Decoding the Terminology:

If you’ve heard someone talking about gut health, chances are you listened to prebiotics and probiotics and may wonder what the difference is. Prebiotics are the food for bacteria in our gut and come as fiber in the diet, as we have previously discussed. Fiber is found in foods like beans, lentils, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, oatmeal, and whole-grain starches.

Probiotics, however, are not food for your gut's microbes but are live cultures of bacteria found mainly in fermented foods. Some great probiotic sources include yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi, kombucha, tempeh, and miso paste. Including these in your diet will indeed diversify your gut flora, creating a healthy gut microbiome!

Balancing Act: Nutritional Benefits and Disease Prevention

Gut bacteria should be balanced in the body. Bacteria in your gut are essential for nutritional-related benefits, such as producing vitamins and other metabolic components that are helpful to your body and may even reduce the risks of certain diseases. The bacteria in your gut spends much of its time helping your digestive system break down nutrients that you eat while using them as food for bacterial growth. Your gut microbiome also maintains a balance of good and bad bacteria. When the bad bacteria outnumber the good, it can result in gut dysfunction or dysbiosis, often affecting the entire body. 

The Impact of Diet and Lifestyle on Gut Health

Some evidence has shown that diets high in fat, refined carbohydrates, alcohol, and artificial sweeteners may alter gut microbial composition by favoring the growth of harmful bacteria, causing gut flora disruption. It is also known that antibiotics, while necessary to fight infection, can negatively affect the gut microbiome. When microbiome imbalances occur due to the overgrowth of harmful bacterial populations, this may cause digestive and metabolic issues and immune system problems, and it has even been associated with mental health disorders.

On the other hand, a diet with a variety of fruits, vegetables, lean meat, fish, and dairy, if tolerated, fiber, and probiotics can make sure the beneficial bacteria in your gut flourish. Remember, a balanced diet equals a balanced gut microbiome!

Cultivating Digestive Wellness

Think of your gut not just as your digestive system, but a vibrant ecosystem with trillions of microscopic residents that play a crucial role in health and well-being. Remember that your diet and lifestyle choices can significantly impact gut microbial composition, and both have the power to not only improve digestion, but benefit overall health and wellness when well-nourished. Prioritizing fiber, probiotics, and a balanced diet can foster a healthy gut microbiome which in turn cultivates a healthier, happier you. 


  1. Armet, A. M., Deehan, E. C., O'Sullivan, A. F., Mota, J. F., Field, C. J., Prado, C. M., Lucey, A. J., & Walter, J. (2022). Rethinking healthy eating in light of the gut microbiome. Cell host & microbe, 30(6), 764–785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2022.04.016
  2. Green, M., Arora, K., & Prakash, S. (2020). Microbial Medicine: Prebiotic and Probiotic Functional Foods to Target Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(8), 2890. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082890 
  3. Holscher H. D. (2017). Dietary fiber and prebiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Gut microbes, 8(2), 172–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2017.1290756
  4. Malesza, I. J., Malesza, M., Walkowiak, J., Mussin, N., Walkowiak, D., Aringazina, R., Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, J., & Mądry, E. (2021). High-Fat, Western-Style Diet, Systemic Inflammation, and Gut Microbiota: A Narrative Review. Cells, 10(11), 3164. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113164 


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Lindsey Lemus

Ph.D. Student

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