Understanding Fibromyalgia: A Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment - Part 1
Article

Understanding Fibromyalgia: A Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment - Part 1

Published on Thursday, January 18, 2024
by
Keydella Fuller

Health & Wellness

Exploring the Complexities of Fibromyalgia: Symptoms, Causes, and Solutions

Imagine you are at the peak of your career, your hard work has paid off, and you feel on top of the world, thriving. Only to wake up one day confronting a stranger in the mirror- the face of someone imprisoned by unexplained pain, fatigue, brain fog, and other mystery symptoms. Fibromyalgia can disrupt lives in this inexplicable way. This article aims to shed some light on fibromyalgia, exploring its diagnostic criteria, potential causes, and the latest treatment approaches.

Introduction to Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia isn't just about the chronic widespread pain; it also encompasses sleep disturbances and cognitive issues, also known as “fibro fog,” hindering one's ability to focus or concentrate. The pain typically affects the neck, buttocks, shoulders, arms, the upper back, and the chest. It causes pain and tenderness without visible signs of inflammation and affects both sides of the body. 

Moreover, fibromyalgia is often associated with other conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome, migraines, anxiety, depression, and many others. It is estimated to affect 6% to 15% of people in the United States, with a higher incidence in women.

Potential Causes and Triggers: Seeking Clarity Amidst Uncertainty

The cause of fibromyalgia is not well understood. Based on the symptoms, it is thought to be related to changes in chemical signals in the brain. There have been some suggestions of a genetic component as it tends to run in families. Infections and emotional or physical stress have been shown to either trigger or exacerbate the condition. 

Additionally, research is growing on potential gut microbiome imbalance and disruption of the gut-brain connection as contributory factors. We will discuss this more in the following article on the link between fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome. 

How is it Diagnosed?

Traditionally, diagnosis relied on pinpointing tenderness in 18 specific body paints. Pain in 11 of 18 of these tender spots would support the diagnosis. Newer guidelines do not require a tender point exam. Instead, the main factor needed to diagnose is chronic widespread pain throughout the body for at least three months or more, utilizing the widespread pain index and symptom severity score. It is important to exclude other conditions with similar symptoms. 

Insights into Latest Treatment Approaches: Embracing Hope

Management of fibromyalgia ranges from medication for pain like NSAIDS and Tylenol, antidepressants, anti-seizure medications, and lifestyle modifications focusing on stress and exercise to holistic measures like acupuncture and other herbal medicines.

Stress management techniques offer some relief, including yoga, meditation, gentle exercise, and breathing exercises. Cognitive behavior therapy has been found to be helpful and shown to improve pain, mood, and functional ability in some patients with fibromyalgia. 

Complementary therapies like acupuncture, hypnosis, mindfulness, and other alternative therapies offer potential relief of symptoms. 

Evidence on nutrition needs to be better understood; however, several studies have shown that patients with fibromyalgia may benefit from high antioxidant, high fiber foods, high-quality proteins, healthy fats, and less processed foods, the mainstay of an anti-inflammatory diet. 

Conclusion: Navigating Together Toward Hope

As you can see, this condition is chronic, ongoing, and debilitating for some. The vagueness in its diagnosis and treatments does little to relieve pain. However, more research is being conducted, which may lead to better therapy options that help symptoms tremendously. If you are experiencing symptoms or are concerned about fibromyalgia, please seek help from a medical professional. Also, be sure to surround yourself with others that understand. Fibromyalgia support groups may be beneficial. 


  1. Jahan, F., Nanji, K., Qidwai, W., & Qasim, R. (2012). Fibromyalgia Syndrome: An Overview of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management. Oman Medical Journal, 27(3), 192-195. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3394355/
  2. Kadayifci, F. Z., Bradley, M. J., Onat, A. M., Shi, H. N., & Zheng, S. (2022). Review of nutritional approaches to fibromyalgia. Nutrition Reviews, 80(12), 2260-2274. https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/80/12/2260/6604329
  3. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2021, October 26). Fibromyalgia - Symptoms & causes. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 19, 2023, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/symptoms-causes/syc-20354780
  4. Sarzi-Puttini, P., Giorgi, V., Marotto, D., & Atzeni, F. (2020). Fibromyalgia: an update on clinical characteristics, aetiopathogenesis and treatment. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 16, 645-660. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41584-020-00506-w 

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Keydella Fuller

MSN, APRN, FNP-C

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